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The "therefore" may very well be taken as referring vaguely to the whole preceding Epistle and introducing a sort of epilogue. Puller is the latest and most elaborate attempt to evade the plain meaning of the Jacobean text that we have met with; hence our reason for dealing with it so fully.
It would be an endless task to notice the many other similarly arbitrary devices of interpretation to which Protestant theologians and commentators have recurred in attempting to justify their denial of the Tridentine teaching so clearly supported by St.
Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. 417.) Each of the priests who are present repeats the whole rite. Going back farther we find extreme unction enumerated among the sacraments in the profession of faith subscribed for the Greeks by Michael Palæologus at the Council of Lyons in 1274 (Denzinger, no. 388), and in the still earlier profession prescribed for converted Waldenses by Innocent III in 1208 (Denzinger, no. Among the older Schoolmen there had been a difference of opinion on this point, some--as Hugh of St. Mark, and some of them took it to be a record of its institution by Christ or at least a proof of His promise or intention to institute it.
Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more all for only .99... The name did not become technical in the West till towards the end of the twelfth century, and has never become current in the East. Some post-Tridentine theologians also (Maldonatus, de Sainte-Beuve, Berti, Mariana, and among recent writers, but in a modified form, Schell) have maintained that the unction here mentioned was sacramental.
James (see examples in Kern, "De Sacramento Extremæ Unctionis", Ratisbon, 1907, pp. It is enough to remark that the number of mutually contradictory interpretations they have offered is a strong confirmation of the Catholic interpretation, which is indeed the only plain and natural one, but which they are bound to reject at the outset. James's injunction and their hopeless disagreement as to what the Apostle really meant, we have the practice of the whole Christian world down to the time of the Reformation in maintaining the use of the Jacobean rite, and the agreement of East and West in holding this rite to be a sacrament in the strict sense, an agreement which became explicit and formal as soon as the definition of a sacrament in the strict sense was formulated, but which was already implicitly and informally contained in the common practice and belief of preceding ages.
We proceed, therefore, to study the witness of Tradition. 544 sq.) well founded, that recourse to this sacrament was much rarer in early ages than later.
But unless we agree to disregard the rules of grammar and the logical sequence of thought, it is impossible to allow this separation of the clauses and this sudden transition in the third clause to a new and altogether unexpected subject-matter.
Moreover, the Apostle could not, surely, have meant to teach or imply that every sick Christian who was anointed would be cured of his sickness and saved from bodily death; yet the unction is clearly enjoined as a permanent institution in the Church for all the sick faithful, and the saving and raising up are represented absolutely as being the normal, if not infallible, effect of its use. We admit that our rightly disposed prayers are always and infallibly efficacious for our ultimate spiritual good, but not by any means necessarily so for the specific temporal objects or even the proximate spiritual ends which we ourselves intend. James assurance that the prayer-unction shall be efficacious.James clearly implies the Divine institution of the rite he enjoins. It may be admitted that the words "the prayer of faith shall save the sick man; and the Lord shall raise him up", taken by themselves and apart from the context, might possibly be applied to mere bodily healing; but the words that follow, "and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him", speak expressly of a spiritual effect involving the bestowal of grace.To take these words as referring to a mere invocation of Christ's name--which is the only alternative interpretation--would be to see in them a needless and confusing repetition of the injunction "let them pray over him". This being so, and it being further assumed that the remission of sins is given by St. from the bodily infirmity that holds him, and make him live through the grace of Christ, by the intercessions of [certain saints who are named], and of all the saints." (Goar, Euchologion, p. Thus, long before Trent--in fact from the time when the definition of a sacrament in the strict sense had been elaborated by the early Scholastics-- extreme unction had been recognized and authoritatively proclaimed as a sacrament; but in Trent for the first time its institution by Christ Himself was defined. The abuses connected with its administration which prevailed in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and which tended to make it accessible only to the rich, gave the Waldenses a pretext for denouncing it as the (cf. Bede, and others) and not a few Scholastics saw a reference to this sacrament in this text of St. The parts usually anointed are the forehead, chin, cheeks, hands, nostrils, and breast, and the form used is the following: "Holy Father, physician of souls and of bodies, Who didst send Thy Only-Begotten Son as the healer of every disease and our deliverer from death, heal also Thy servant N. The Albigenses are said to have rejected it, the meaning probably being that its rejection, like that of other sacraments, was logically implied in their principles. Some ancient writers (Victor of Antioch, Theophylactus, Euthymius, St.