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Biograph stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York. Under the Edison Trust, they were able to make their mark in a brand-new business: the exhibition of films in storefront theaters called nickelodeons.
During the Edison era of the early 1900s, many Jewish immigrants had found jobs in the U. Within a few years, ambitious men like Samuel Goldwyn, Carl Laemmle, Adolph Zukor, Louis B.
Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals before distribution (theatrical or retail release).
An independent film production can rival a mainstream film production if it has the necessary funding and distribution.
The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford, and cowboy star William S.
Hart a year earlier as they were traveling around the U. selling Liberty bonds to help the World War I effort.
While the kinds of films produced by Poverty Row studios only grew in popularity, they would eventually become increasingly available both from major production companies and from independent producers who no longer needed to rely on a studio's ability to package and release their work.
The Edison Trust was soon ended by two decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States: one in 1912, which canceled the patent on raw film, and a second in 1915, which cancelled all MPPC patents. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troupe, consisting of performers Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore, and others.
Though these decisions succeeded at legalizing independent film, they would do little to remedy the de facto ban on small productions; the independent filmmakers who had fled to Southern California during the enforcement of the trust had already laid the groundwork for the studio system of classical Hollywood cinema. They began filming on a vacant lot near Georgia Street in downtown Los Angeles.
Finally there was "Poverty Row", a catch all term used to encompass any other smaller studio that managed to fight their way up into the increasingly exclusive movie business.
While the small studios that made up Poverty Row could be characterized as existing "independently" of any major studio, they utilized the same kind of vertically and horizontally integrated systems of business as the larger players in the game.