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Interestingly, they both contain references to the practice of oﬀering one’s head to a terrifying goddess in order to save someone else. Stories of canny procuresses rival those of cunning crows and tigers. introduction manuscript according to Peterson’s edition. The second verse, our 4.116 , comes from Kam´andaki’s N¯ıtis¯ara (9.44), not from the R¯am¯ayan. Nevertheless,thereisanadditionalversethat Ster- nbach seems to have traced back to the Bengali recension of the R¯am¯ayan. Other citations from the epics shed no greater light on the problem. As a river, even if it ﬂows in the lowlands, 0.5 can bring one to an inaccessible sea, so knowledge— but only knowledge—even in a person of low status, can bring one into the presence of an unapproachable king and afterwards, bring good fortune. Finally, both works are written in fairly simple Sanskrit, the majority of the texts consisting of straightforward prose; they are therefore ideal for beginners in Sanskrit. An oﬃcious ass sim- ply gets beaten by his master, but the meddlesome monkey ends up with crushed testicles. Prologue 19 (0.23 ), found in all versions of the Hitopade´sa, is missing in the critical edition of the Mah¯abh¯arata, but is present in the Bengali and the Telugu re- censions, the Vulgate, the Deva·n´agari composite recension, and one Kashmiri manuscript. Knowledge bestows modesty, from which one becomes worthy. sk¯aro n’ ˆanyath¯a bhavet, kath¯a Achalena b¯al¯an¯am.  mitra Al¯abhah., suhr.d Abhedo, vigrahah., sam. We follow the general convention that a vowel with no mark above it is short. vidy¯ay¯am artha Al¯abhe ca, m¯atur ucc¯ara eva sah.. ca,0.20 varam eko gun.¯ı putro, na ca m¯urkha A´sat¯any api.  arth’A¯agamo, nityam a Arogit¯a ca, priy¯a ca bh¯ary¯a, priya Av¯adin¯ı ca, va´sya´s ca putro, ’rtha Akar¯ı ca vidy¯a, j¯ıva Alokasya sukh¯ani, r¯ajan. One moon destroys darkness, but not even a multitude of stars can do so.  yasya kasya pras¯uto ’pi gun.av¯an p¯ujyate narah.
The vast majority of these cases will concern a ﬁnal a or ¯a. Learning is the universal eye; without it, you are blind.
Since the somewhat more diﬃcult verses of the ‘Friendly Advice’ are not indispensable to the narrative, they can be omitted by ﬁrst-time readers of Sanskrit. A prince manages to enjoy himself with a merchant’s wife with her husband’s consent, while another one gets kicked out of paradise by a painted image. As Sternbach (1960: 2–4, 19: 13–4) has shown, citations identiﬁable in various recensions of the Pa˜ncatantra and of Chan´akya’s aphorisms unfortunately do not help in establishing the date and origin of the Hitopade´sa. Being worthy, one obtains riches, from riches, pious acts, and then one reaches happiness. dhir eva ca Pa˜ncatantr¯at tath” ˆanyasm¯ad granth¯ad ¯akr.likhyate. invocation An impression made on a freshly molded clay pot does not change afterwards, and such is the case with young people; therefore good governance is taught to them here in the guise of tales.
We hope that in addition to entertaining the reader, this volume will provide a useful tool for learning Sanskrit. The author of the work, Nar´ayana, is not only an ex- cellent anthologist, who put together the best examples of ancient Indian story-telling in this book, but a poet and story-teller in his own right.1 ‘Friendly Advice’ is also one of the most widely read works of Sanskrit literature, and one of the most frequently translated into European languages. “The C¯Collections and N¯ar¯ayan.a’s Hitopa- de´sa: an Additional Comment.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 87.3, 306–8. 6 This has already been pointed out by Ingalls (1966: 9). On the possible relation of this goddess with the goddess of good fortune, Lakshmi, in Pallava times, see Schmid 2005) The theme of sacriﬁcing one’s son goes back to the Vedic myth of Shu- nah·shepa (for an analysis and further, South Indian, examples see Shulman 1993). ca cintayet; gr.h¯ıta iva ke´ses.u mr.tyun¯a dharmam ¯acaret. Control of the battleﬁeld and mastery of the ﬁelds of learning both lead to fame; but while the former makes for ridicule in old age, the latter is always respected. These chapters on how to win friends, how to break friendships, how to make war and how to make peace have been taken from the ‘Five Discourses on Worldly Wisdom’ and elsewhere.* 59 54. asti Bh¯ag¯ırath¯ıAt¯ıre P¯at.aliputra An¯ama Adheyam.
First Edition 2007 The Clay Sanskrit Library is co-published by New York University Press and the JJC Foundation. Editorial input from Linda Covill, Tomoyuki Kono, Guy Leavitt, Eszter Somogyi & P´eter Sz´ant´o. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hitopade´sa. form: tad hasati is commonly written as tad dhasati, but we write tadd hasati so that the original initial letter is obvious.
a & “King Vikrama’s Adventures” TRANSLATED BY JUDIT T ¨ORZS ¨OK NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS JJC FOUNDATION 4. Friendly advice by N¯ar¯ayan.a & King V´ıkrama’s adventures / translated by T¨orzs¨ok, Judit. (3) Where a word begins with h and the previous word ends with a double consonant, this is our simpliﬁed spelling to show the pre-sandhi 14 14.