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When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color.
Each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.
FIDE also awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of which is grandmaster.
Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own.
The first generally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886.
Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by FIDE, the game's international governing body.